Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and management services for individuals who have hypersensitivities to substances that do not normally cause reactions. Conditions typically treated include asthma, rhinitis, eczema, hives and adverse reactions to drugs, foods and insect stings.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who have advanced training in the medical specialty which involves the relief of pain and the maintenance or restoration of stability in individuals who are undergoing surgical, obstetric or diagnostic procedures. Other interventions may include the diagnosis and treatment of long-standing pain problems and the resuscitation and care of people who have cardiac or respiratory emergencies including the provision of artificial ventilation.
Programs that specialize in the care of the teeth and associated structures in the oral cavity including the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the teeth and gums.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for individuals who have benign and malignant disorders of the skin and related tissues of the mouth, external genitalia, hair and nails as well as advice regarding the care of normal skin. Dermatologists use a variety of diagnostic procedures including microscopic and microbiologic examination of the skin and its secretions and treatment methods which may include externally applied, injected and internal medications; selected x-ray and ultraviolet light therapy; and a range of surgical procedures using instruments which include the scalpel, surgical curette, electrosurgical unit, freezing surgical unit and laser.
Programs that are concerned with maintaining or improving the health of the eyes and their appropriate functioning as the organs of sight.
Programs that are staffed by specialists in the field of medicine that is concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community. Practitioners of family and community medicine provide comprehensive medical care including preventive services with particular emphasis on the family unit, in which the physician's continuing responsibility for health care is not limited by the patient's age or gender, nor by a particular organ system or disease entity.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for individuals who have diseases or injuries which affect the internal organs and require nonsurgical intervention. General internists provide continuing comprehensive care for common and complex multisystem illnesses in ambulatory care as well as hospital settings. Internists often function as primary care physicians who are the patient's initial point of contact with the health care system and who assume ongoing responsibility for maintaining the health of their patients and for providing treatment in case of illness including consultation with specialists when required.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive medical management including preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for individuals who have diseases or injuries that affect the central, peripheral or autonomic nervous systems including the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves and other related structures.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who have expertise in the diagnostic and therapeutic utilization of the nuclear properties of radioactive and stable nuclides including radioimmunoassay; therapy with radioisotopically labelled antibodies; positron emission tomography (PET); and single-proton emission computerized tomography (SPECT). Additionally, the nuclear medicine physician has special knowledge in the biological effects of radiation exposure; the principles of radiation safety and protection; the management of patients who have been exposed to ionizing radiation; and special knowledge in the physical sciences encompassing the fundamentals of nuclear physics and nuclear magnetic resonance and the principles and operation of radiation detection and nuclear imaging instrumentation systems.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services that focus on women's reproductive health and care for women during pregnancy, childbirth and the period immediately following childbirth as well as the health of the fetus.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who have expertise in the prevention of occupational disease and injury and the evaluation and treatment of people who have these problems.
Programs that are based on the premise that the body is a vital mechanical organism in which structural and functional states are of equal importance and that the body is able to rectify toxic conditions when it has favorable environmental circumstances and satisfactory nutrition. Treatment focuses on the manipulation of the body to restore structural integrity, but also utilizes other measures including medication, surgery and proper diet.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services including surgery for individuals who have diseases or injuries that affect the head and neck including the ears, the respiratory and upper alimentary systems, the face, the jaws and related structures.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who are concerned with the physical, emotional and social health of infants, children and adolescents from birth to young adulthood. Pediatricians have advanced training in the biological, social and environmental factors that have an influence on a developing child and have expertise in diagnosing and treating the acute and chronic diseases that are common to individuals in this age range.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and management services for people who have a physical disability, either individually or as the leader of an interdisciplinary team. Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists (also known as physiatrists) focus on restoring function using physical means rather than surgery. They prescribe medication, order assistive devices such as a brace or an artificial limb, recommend therapy (e.g., heat and cold, electrotherapies, trigger point injections, massage, biofeedback and traction) and set up exercise programs. Problems most commonly treated by physiatrists include acute and chronic pain, sports injuries (joint injuries, sprains and strains), injuries to the spine or spinal cord, neck injuries, tendonitis, pinched nerves, peripheral nerve injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome, traumatic brain injury, paraplegia, quadriplegia, arthritis and neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, polio and ALS. Physiatrists practice in rehabilitation centres, hospitals and private offices; and may have a broad practice or specialize in a particular area such as pediatrics, sports medicine, geriatric medicine or brain injury.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services for individuals who have diseases of or injuries to the feet. Conditions treated may include bacterial and fungal infections, skin and nail disorders, benign and cancerous tumours, congenital and acquired foot deformities and foot problems caused by illnesses such as diabetes, arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. Treatment includes use of surgical procedures, casting or other forms of immobilization and the prescription of corrective devices, oral and locally injected medication and physical therapy. Included are services provided by podiatrists, chiropodists and other foot care specialists. Foot care may also be provided by nurses. In most Canadian provinces (such as Ontario), podiatrists are health professional specialists with a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree whereas chiropodists are college-trained professionals who provide practical foot care in Canada, particularly for older adults. In some Canadian provinces, such as Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, "podiatrist" is the term used for someone who has the qualifications of a chiropodist.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who provide comprehensive preventive, diagnostic and treatment services for people who have injuries or illnesses that were caused by participation in an athletic event or other recreational activity.
Programs that are staffed by specialists who diagnose conditions which require a surgical intervention and provide preoperative, operative and postoperative care for surgical patients.
Programs that allow health care professionals to evaluate, diagnose and treat patients in remote locations using telecommunications technology. Telemedicine permits two-way, real time interactive communication between the patient, and the physician or other practitioners at a distant site. Some programs may also incorporate other forms of communication including transfer of medical information such as CT scans, MRIs, ultrasound studies, radiographic images and pathology images to medical personnel at another site for review and analysis. The technology is also being used in other related areas of practice (e.g., mental health, substance use disorders, gambling) as well as for teaching and remote caregiving purposes.
The branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travellers. Services include pre-travel consultation and evaluation, contingency planning during travel, and post-travel follow-up and care in situations where problems have occurred. Consultations may include advice regarding special itineraries such as cruise ship travel, diving trips, mass gatherings (e.g., pilgrimages) or wilderness/remote regions travel; information about diseases that are endemic in countries to be visited; suggestions for specific medications to include in a travel kit; repellants, mosquito nets and other means of dealing with insects; information regarding drinking water and food safety; and travel insurance coverage and services that may need to be accessed during travel. Some programs may also provide directories of recommended health care facilities and doctors in cities around the world.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.